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双语科技百科(工程建筑) 第83期:圆明园

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NBA赛事竞猜平台|Yuan Ming Yuan圆明园Yuan Ming Yuan, located on the western outskirts of Beijing, is adjacentto the Summer Palace. First built in the 46th year of the reign of Emperor Kongxi ( 1707) , it is composed of three gardens, i. e. Yuanmingyuan, Changchunyuan and Qichunyuan, with an area of 350 hectares, including a water area of 140 hectares. It has over one hundred landscape gardens, with a total building area of over 160,000 square meters. It was a large imperial garden built and managed by the emperors of the Gting Dynasty over 150 years. It inherited the excellent gardening traditions of over three thousand years in China and integrated the garden architecture of different styles, as can be reflected by the fact that it had the splendour and grandeur of the imperial structures and the serenity and gracefulness of gardens in the waterside towns in South China, and assimilated some elements from the European garden architecture. Yuan Ming Yuan used to be well-known in the world for its vast land scale, remarkable building techniques, elegant architectural groups, abundant cultural collections and profound national cultural connotations. It was reputated as model of all gardening arts and Garden of Gardens. Unfortunately, this world-known garden was sacked and burned to the ground by the Anglo-French forces in October, 1860 and was later plundered and looted for many times. Consequently, the grand garden fell into ruins. Now, with the relics as the theme, Yuan Ming Yuan has formed a unique tourist scenery in combination with the history and vigorous atmosphere of the garden, having an important political and historical value as well as being a rare tourist resort.圆明园坐落于在北京西郊,与颐和园紧相坐落。它始建于康熙四十六年(1707),由圆明、长春、绮春三园构成。占地面积350公顷(5200余亩),其中水面面积大约140公顷(2100亩),有园林风景百余处,建筑面积逾16万平方米,是清朝帝王在150余年间创立和经营的一座大型皇家宫苑。

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它承继了中国3000多年的杰出造园传统,既有宫廷建筑的雍容华贵,又有江南水乡园林的直白多姿,同时,又汲取了欧洲的园林建筑形式,把有所不同风格的园林建筑融为一体,圆明园曾以其宏伟的地域规模、卓越的营造技艺、精致的建筑景群、非常丰富的文化珍藏和博大精深的民族文化内涵而享有盛名于世,被誉为“一切造园艺术的典范”和“万园之园”。意外的是,这一世界名园于1860年10月遭英法联军残暴的掠夺烧毁,以后又经历了无数次吞噬和掠夺,这一宏大的名园最后沦落一片废墟。如今的圆明园遗址公园,以遗址为主题,构成了凝结的历史与充满著蓬勃生机的园林气氛结合的独有的旅游景观,既具备根本性的政治历史价值,又是一处绝佳的旅游胜地。

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